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Climate change is a global problem, but its consequences are not evenly distributed around the world. Factors for how vulnerable communities are differ along geographical, income, or a combination of both.

Geographical example: although the average global temperature is projected to rise by 3 degrees Celsius   by 2100, some places along the equator have already warmed by quite as much, leading to extreme heat and prolonged droughts.

Income example: income levels dictate how people can adapt to climate change. Adaptations such as air-conditioning and fire insurance are costly and can be unaffordable for the poorest of the poor.

Combination: Combined factors can compound on the impacts on livelihoods. Many of those with already low income levels work in industries that are most heavily impacted by climate change such as agriculture. For example, farmers whose crops are affected by droughts get a hit in their income and therefore also struggle to afford air-conditioning, thereby reducing their quality of life.

This short BBC Video looks at how climate change is making poverty and inequality worse.

Climate change inequality therefore manifests in various forms and have trickle effects on others aspects of life.

The following series of cartoons from World101 explores how heat waves brought about by climate change can have different impacts on quality of life of different communities.

World101 by Council of Foreign Relations

So, who are the most vulnerable countries to climate change?

The table below, which shows the 10 countries most affected from climate change extreme weather events from 2000 to 2019, is based on the weather events from the past 20 years.

Long Term Climate Change Risk. Global Climate Risk Index :

However, there are non-weather factors that also determine how severely a country or city will be impacted by climate change. For example, there are other vulnerable nations, including those of the Pacific Islands, where rising sea levels pose an existential threat to their islands.

Here are some case studies from Time magazine ('The Climate Crisis Is Global, but These 6 Places Face the Most Severe Consequences') on 6 different places in the world that are particularly vulnerable in different ways.

six places vulnerable to climate change

What is pertinent from these lists is that none of these countries are economically developed nations.

In contrast, according to the map below, most of the developed world appears to be the least susceptible to the effects of climate change.

Potential vulnerability to Climate Change from Standard and Poor's